The Wintu and Their Neighbors

Christopher Chase-Dunn and Kelly M. Mann

Appendix 3:

Wintu, Yana, Pit River and Chimariko Placenames in Northern California:

Data on pairs for determining Calque Rates

These are the data upon which the results in Tables 8,9 and 10 in The Wintu and Their Neighbors are based. The information here is derived primarily from Theodoratus (1985). It was used to determine the ratio of calques to the total number of place name pairs for three bilateral relationships: Wintu-Yana, Wintu-Achomawi and Wintu-Chimariko. The Achomawi, Madesi and other Hokan-speakers living along the Pit River are all called "Pit River" here.

"Calques" are instances in which the meaning of a place name in one language has been translated into another language. Placename pairs occur primarily along the boundaries between linguistic groups, but are also found for objects, such as high mountains, that can be seen for a long distance. Our job was to determine for each pair whether or not it was a calque. Sometimes the meaning of the place names was given in Theodoratus. In many other cases it was necessary to use dictionaries in order to determine the meanings. The calque rate is the ratio of calques to all those pairs for which we have meanings for both names or when we can eliminate the possibility of a calque if we know one meaning and can be reasonably certain (with a dictionary) that the other name does not mean the same thing.

This resulted in four categories:

DK was coded when one or both place names could not be translated, or when the meaning of one could not be eliminated as the meaning of the other. B was coded when an a similar-sounding word had been taken by one group from another for the place name.

The bilateral relationships are designated thus:

The pairs are given for each U.S.G.S. Quad map in which the locations appear. The numbers refer to placename numbers assigned in Theodoratus (1985).

These are the places that we coded:

Big Bend Quad

PR-W 4,18,20,28,69

PR-Y 1,2,3,7,15,18,19,20,24,28,29,37,50,51,53,54,58,59, 60,61,62,63

Y-W 18,20,28

Bollibokka Quad

PR-W 10,61,105,230,

PR-Y 8,61,105?,226,227,228, unnumbered on p. 28,

Y-W 61,79,105?

Dubakella Quad

W-C 5,

Hayfork Quad

W-C 4,10,25,27,29,36,47

Helena Quad

W-C 3

Hyampom Quad

W-C 10,11,18, 19, 23, 24, 26, 30, 31, 35, 41, 43,45,48,49,50,51,53,59,62,63,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73 74, 75, 76,77,78, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 87, 88, 90, 92, 93, 95, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 111, 114, 116, 119, 121, 122, 123

Ironside Quad

W-C 2, 9, 12

Millville Quad

W-Y 20, 21,

Montgomery Creek Quad

W-Y 154 PR-Y 18, 21, 23, 24, 28, 29, 31, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 59, 70, 71, 75, 78, 80, 86, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 100, 101,102,103,106,109,154,155, 156, (p. 19, not mapped )

W-PR 154

Pickett Peak Quad

W-C 2,9,

Pilot Creek Quad

W-C 1,4,5,7,8,9,10,12,13,15,

Shasta Quad

W-PR 2(MtShasta), 5

W-C 2

W-Y 2

Shoeinhorse Quad

W-PR 12, 16, 18,19,20,23,28,29,

Weaverville Quad

W-C 11, 28

Willow Creek Quad

W-C 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

These are the placename pair totals for each linguistic dyad:

Here are the placenames for each of the above pairs and their translations into English.

I. Yana-Wintu pairs

Big Bend Quad

18 Hunt Hot Spring(NC)

20 Kosk Creek (NC)

28 Big Bend Area (NC)

Bollibokka Quad

61 Fender's Flat(NC)

79 Potem Creek (DK)

105 Squaw Creek(NC)

Millville Quad

20 Ben Jenkins place on the hilltop west of Ingot(NC)

21 area west of Ben Jenkins's place, known as Rocky Plains.(NC)

Montgomery Creek Quad

154 Round Mountain(NC)

Shasta Quad

2 Mt Shasta(NC)

II. Wintu-Pit River Pairs:

Big Bend Quad

4 Little Joe Flat (C)

18 Hunt Hot Spring (NC)

20 Kosk Creek (NC)

28 Big Bend Area (NC)

69 large flat on west side of Kosk Cr. above Hunt Hot Spring (C)

Bollibokka Quad

10 Formerly John Mile's place (C)

61 Fender's Flat (NC)

105 Squaw Creek (NC)

230 McCloud River (NC)

Montgomery Creek Quad

154 Round Mountain(NC)

Shasta Quad

2 Mount Shasta (NC)

5 A large hunting area immediately south of W. yipokos phuyuq; evidently the area of Ash Creek valley (Bauman 1981:40/D5). (C)

Shoeinhorse Quad

12 Johnny Hibbs's place at lower end of Huckleberry Valley(NC)

16 A mountain at the very north end of Curl Ridge and at the head of Claiborne Ck.; evidently McKenzie Mtn (Bauman, 1981:41/E16). (DK)

18 Big Springs(DK)

19 Mud Creek(C)

20 Huckleberry Valley (C)

28 Schoeinhorse Mtn.(NC)

29 Place on east bank of McCloud River, approximately 4 miles downriver of McCloud River Club; Abe Morgan's place, now a copper mining camp (Bauman 1981:42/E29). (NC)

III. Chimariko-Wintu Pairs

Dubakella Mountain Quad

5 Little Black Rock (C)

Hayfork Quad

4 A flat at mouth of Oregon Gulch on east side of Trinity R., now mined off (C)

10 A big basin in the mountains immediately south and across the Trinity River from Junction City (C)

25 Big Flat (DK)

27 Big Bar (DK)

29 A spot in Trinity River at Big flat (C)

36 Hayfork (DK)

47 Hayfork (DK)

Helena Quad

3 North Fork of the Trinity (C)

Hyampom Quad

10 The old Humboldt trail west of French Gulch (C)

11 The portion of the Humboldt trail passing along the ridge west of the South Fork Trinity River upriver of Cold Springs (same as above, dont count again)

18 Site located on the South Fork of the Trinity River just above Oak Flat; Abe Bush's place; also used to refer to the whole South Fork Region. It is known to be a great meeting place and elk hunting ground. (DK)

19 Abe Bush's lower place on west side of South Fork Trinity River, evidently Waldorff Flat (C)

23 Known locally as Devil's Hole; a spot on South Fork Trinity River about 3/4 mile upriver of its confluence with Hayfork Creek. (C)

24 Falls in South Fork Trinity River upriver of Devil's Hole (C)

26 This place name means, according to Harrington, "water grizzly bear hole." This is the name for a "series of caves on the South fork Trinity River evidently on wintoon Flat." (C)

30 Area 2 miles east of Hyampom which includes several small ponds (C)

31 Grel Ranch on north bank of Butter Creek. (C)

35 Butter Creek (NC)

41 A small round pond off the Hyampom-Hayfork Road where road to Oak Flat leaves the highway; known locally as the Fish Pond, 1/4 mile northwest of k'ulem lul'(#29). (C)

43 The Foulks place, about 2 miles southeast of Hyampom formerly called Post Flat. The Wintu name is also given to Friend place on Plummer Creek. (Pickett Peak 2) (C)

45 Falls in Hayfork Creek approximately 2 miles upriver of confluence with south fork Trinity river. (NC)

48 The name for this place means "above the falls." (NC)

49 Grassy Flats (this appears to be a borrowing) (B)

50 Schweitzer Ford (DK)

51 An "old Indian camping ground where elders used to instruct younger people." It is located, according to Harrington, on the south bank Hayfork Creek approximately 1/2 mile upstream from the falls. It is accessible by a trail from the Hayfork highway. (DK)

53 Bluff on north edge of Hayfork Ck. in the immediate vicinity of dubet tc'aqhi' (#45). (C)

59 An unnamed peak north of Hayfork Ck., just downriver from the mouth of Miner's Creek. (NC)

62 The Gates place on lower Gates Creek. (C)

63 Hinkley Flat (C)

66 Hyampom Valley (NC) but Bauman says that Wintu name means Chimariko land.

67 A swamp on the old Combs place on highway about 1 mile east of the confluence of Hayfork Ck. and South Fork Trinity River. (C)

68 Old Kerlin place (according to Harrington), approximately 1/2 mile up Kerlin Ck., named for a "sacred or luck giving rock at this place." (C)

69 Kerlin Creek (C)

70 Pelletreau Creek (NC)

71 A bluff on the south side of South fork Trinity River where the Hyampom Guard Station is located. (C)

72 The small high peak at the upriver end of pom l'uruqhi' (#71) across the river from Hyampom (C)

73 Bill Garrett, Jr., ranch north of the South Fork Trinity River opposite the mouth of Kerlin Ck. (NC)

74 A waterhole in the former channel of South Fork Trinity River at the foot of the hill 1/2 mile from Bill Garrett, Jr. place. (C)

75 A point on the ridge halfway up to Humboldt Trail on Southfork Mtn. from mouth of Pelletreau Ck.; evidently on Pelletrau Ridge. (NC)

76 Pelletreau Ridge trail (NC)

77 Pelletreau Ridge (NC)

78 The small hill immediately north of the South Fork Trinity River confluence adjacent to Hyampom bridge. (DK)

79 Site of an important Indian cemetary. (C)

80 Ridge running north east of Hinkley Flat between Olssen Ck. and Young Gulch. (C)

83 Will Olsen's hayfield located on the north side of the Southfork Trinity River about 1/2 mile downstream of its confluence with Hayfork Creek. (DK)

84 Will Olsen's place, approximately 1/2 mile up from the mouth of Olsen Ck. (C)

85 Site of a large sweathouse. (DK)

86 The Treat place about 2 1/2 miles north of Hyampom post office. (NC)

87 Rock on the Old Trinity R. trail from Hyampom, approx. 1 mile east of the Treat place (#86). (C)

88 Confluence of Hayfork Ck.and South Fork Trinity R. (DK)

90 A small flat located at the very downriver corner of Hinkley Flat (#63). (DK)

92 Eltapom Creek area (C)

93 Chaparral Mountain (NC)

95 The long ridge separating Corral Bottom from Hyampom Valley; evidently the divide between Corral Creek and Olsen Creek. (C)

100 A place on South Fork Trinity R. about 200 yards upstream of mouth of Eltapom Creek. (NC)

101 Ray Trimbel place on south side of South Fork Trinity R. about 1/2 mile below the Hayfork Ck. confluence. (C)

103 A rock 150 ft. high on the south side of South Fork Trinity R. about 1/2 mile upriver of eltapom Ck. (C)

104 Big Creek (C)

105 A rock on east side of South Fork Trinity R. just upriver of Big Rock pool (#103). (C)

106 A deep fishing hole in the South Fork Trinity R. at the mouth of Eltapom Ck. (cf. 97, 98) (C)

107 Garratt Ranch (C)

108 Site of a large driftwood pile immediately upriver of Bill Garrett, Sr. place at mouth of Big Creek.(C)

111 Ridge running between Corral Bottom and Taylor's Flat; evidently Monument Peak ridge. (C)

114 Corral Bottom (C)

116 Creek at Big Bar which enters the Trinity from the south; evidently Price Creek. (NC)

119 Cox Bar (NC)

121 Underwood Mountain (C)

122 Place on the Eltapom Ck. trail. (C)

123 A point on the old Indian trail over Hyampom Mtn. just where the trail begins its descent into Corral Bottom. (Bauman 1981:135/W123) (DK)

Ironside Quad

2 The Green or Hennessey place on the Trinity just above the mouth of the New River. (Harrington) (C)

9 Ironsides Mountain (DK)

12 Del Loma (C)

Pickett Peak Quad

2 The Friend place on Plummer Ck., presumably near Friend Lake. (NC)

9 Mad River (C)

Pilot Creek Quad

1 Knudsen place on South Fork Trinity R. approxiamtely 4 miles downriver of Hyampom near Monroe Ck. (C)

4 Place on west side of South Fork Trinity River just upriver from the Knudsen place at the falls at the mouth of Slide Ck. (C)

5 A spring in the timber, off the top of Southfork Mtn. near the Humboldt trail turn off to Hyampom; evidently Doe Spring. (DK)

7 A hole in the South Fork Trinity R. just upriver of Monroe Ck. (C)

8 Mountain west of the Sam Young place in Hyampom Valley; evidently Blake Mtn.; known locally as Bald Mtn. (NC)

9 Southfork Mountain (NC)

10 Formerly the Underwood place on Panther Ck. near its confluence with the South Fork Trinity R.; referred to as the Graham place. (C)

12 Big opening on Southfork Mtn. near Blake Mtn. lookout. (C)

13 A flat about 1/2 mile up Grouse Ck. from its mouth.(C)

15 Cold Springs (DK)

Shasta Quad

2 Mount Shasta (NC)

W= Bohem Puyuk (Bulim Puyuik; Bullem Pie-yuke); waydal buli

C= 'awu tsewu (big mountain) Referred to by Olmsted and Stewart (1978:226, Map) as "power place" (no further information in text). waydal buli' (north peak) is the Wintu name for Mt. Shasta according to Harrington (Bauman 1981:40/D2). 'awu tsewu is the Chimariko name. According to Masson, Mount Shasta is referred to by Wintu as Bohem Puyuik. This means high peak (Masson 1966:28, 92) Schlichter (1967:9) refers to the mountain as Bulim phuyuq phuyuq. According to the Southern Papers (n.d.) the mountain is called Bullem-Pie-yuke.

Weaverville Quad

11 Douglas City (DK)

28 Weaverville (C)

Willow Quad

1 The South Fork of Trinity River presumably near its mouth.(C)

2 Sandy Bar (C)

3 The Campbell place; 1 1/2 miles from Salyer north of Trinity R. in vicinity of Quinby Ck. (C)

4 Grouse Mountain (C)