Description: Description: img7

irows.ucr.edu/cd/appendices/worregs/worregsapp.htm

Appendix for  IROWS Working Paper # 98 Christopher Chase-Dunn, Hiroko Inoue, Alexis Alvarez, Rebecca Alvarez, E. N. Anderson and Teresa Neal

“Uneven Urban Development: Largest Cities since the Late Bronze Age”

http://irows.ucr.edu/papers/irows98/irows98.htm

And IROWS Working Paper #85 Christopher Chase-Dunn, Hiroko Inoue, Alexis Alvarez, Rebecca Alvarez,  E. N. Anderson and Teresa Neal “Uneven Political Development: Largest Empires in Ten world Regions and the Central International System since the Late Bronze Age” http://irows.ucr.edu/papers/irows85/irows85.htm

 

Institute for Research on World-Systems, University of California-Riverside

Riverside, CA  92521-0419 USA

This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant #:  NSF-HSD SES-0527720.

Draft v. 10-10-15

Appendix Table of Contents

Ten world regions

The spatio-temporal boundaries of international systems (political-military networks)

Europe and the Central PMN

 

Excel data files of largest settlement sizes: irows.ucr.edu/cd/appendices/worregs/largestcitiesinworldregions.xlsx 

 

Baghdad problem

Yin/Anyang problem

Settlement Size sources bibliography

Excel data files of largest polity sizes:

Atlas bibliography for polity sizes

Combined files for Settlement-polity comparisons

Missing cases

Counts of largest city and polity estimates across ten world region

                        Figure showing the counts

 

 

Excel data files of largest polity sizes: irows.ucr.edu/cd/appendices/worregs/empire_largestv15.xlsx

Polity Size sources bibliography

Atlas bibliography for polity sizes

Combined files for Settlement-polity comparisons

Counts of largest city and polity estimates across ten world region

                        Figure showing the counts

                        Notes:

Largest Polities Since -1500

Southeast Asian Largest Polities Since 100 CE

            Polygon Making

Figure showing the logged values to the sum of the largest cities and polities

 

 

Ten World Regions

1.     Europe, including the Mediterranean and Aegean islands, that part of the Eurasian continent to the west of the Caucasus Mountains, but not Asia Minor (now most of Turkey).

2.     Southwest Asia- Asia Minor (now Turkey), the Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, the Levant, and Bactria (Afghanistan), but not north of Afghanistan.

3.     Africa, including Madagascar.

4.     The South Asian subcontinent, including the Indus river valley and Sri Lanka.

5.     East  Asia, including China, Korea, Japan and Manchuria.

6. Central Asia and Siberia: We define Central Asia broadly as:  the territory that lies between the eastern edge of the Caspian Sea (longitude E53) and the old Jade Gate near the city of Dun Huang near longitude E95, and that is north of latitude N37, (which is the northern edge of the Iranian Plateau, the northern part of Afghanistan and the mountains along the southern edge of the Tarim Basin). The northern boundary is the northern edge of the steppes as they transition into forest and tundra. So the Central Asia region we are studying includes deserts, mountains and grasslands (steppes) (Hall et al 2009).

7. Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Cambodia, Burma, Vietnam and Thailand.[1]

8. Oceania, the islands of the Pacific including Australia, New Zealand and Borneo (Papua and Papua New Guinea).

9.  North and Central America

10. South America, including Panama and the Caribbean Islands

worregs28

Figure 1: The ten world regions we are using for comparisons

The spatio-temporal boundaries of international systems (political-military networks)

Political/Military Network

Duration

Terminus

1. Mesopotamian

before 3000BC—c. 1500BC

Coupled with Egyptian to form Central

2. Egyptian

before 3100 BC- 1500 BC

Coupled with Mesopotamian to form Central

3. Aegean

c. 2700 BC—c. 560 BC

Engulfed by Central

4. Indic

c. 2300 BC—c. AD 1000

Engulfed by Central

5. Irish

c. AD 450—c. 1050

Engulfed by Central

6. Mexican

before 1100 BC—c. AD 1520

Engulfed by Central

7. Peruvian

before c. 200 BC—c. AD 1530

Engulfed by Central

8. Chibchan

? —c. AD 1530

Engulfed by Central

9. Indonesian

before AD 700—c. 1550

Engulfed by Central

10. West African

c. AD 350—c. 1550

Engulfed by Central

11. Mississippian

c. AD 700—c. 1590

Destroyed (Pestilence?)

12. Far Eastern

before 1500 BC—c. AD 1850

Engulfed by Central

13. Japanese

c. AD 650—c. 1850

Engulfed by Central

14. Central

c. 1500 BC—Present

?

Europe and the Central PMN: city sizes

This figure shows the largest cities in Europe (blue) and the Central PMN from 1500 BCE to 1800 CE. The Pearson’s correlation for these is .92. Europe is always part of the Central PMN in this time period, so the largest city in Europe cannot be larger than the largest city in the Central PMN. But the reverse can sometimes be true because the Central PMN contains cities that are not in Europe. From 100 CE to 600 CE the largest cities in Europe are exactly as large as the largest cities in the Central PMN but for most years before and after that interval the Central PMN contains larger cities. This comparison is important because the literature on East/West comparisons is often rather vague as to what exactly in being compared with what.

Excel data file of largest settlement sizes:

irows.ucr.edu/cd/appendices/worregs/city_ASA2015_v12.xlsx
city_ASA2015_v12.xlsx
 
Baghdad Problem

Notes on the population size of medieval Baghdad

year

Population size in thousands

Areal size in hectares

 

 

799

500

 

baghdad

Fletcher

800

560

7000

baghdad

Lasser, email, p.

800

175

 

Baghdad

Morris (2010a, p. 110)

800

700

 

Baghdad

Modelski  

800

700

 

Baghdad (arabia)

Chandler p. 467

900

1500

 

baghdad

fletcher

900

900

 

Baghdad

Modelski (2003, p 55, p 219)

900

900

 

Baghdad (arabia)

Chandler p. 468

1000

1200

 

Baghdad

Modelski (2003, p 55, p 63)

1000

500

 

baghdad

fletcher

1000

1500

 

Baghdad

Modelski (2003, p 219)

1000

125

 

Baghdad (Persia)

Chandler p. 469

1100

1200

 

Baghdad

Modelski (2003, p 63)

1100

No fletcher estimate

 

baghdad

fletcher

1100

150

 

Baghdad (seljuks)

Chandler p. 470

1150

100

 

Baghdad (seljuks)

Chandler p. 471

1200

100

 

bagdhad

fletcher

1200

250

 

Baghdad

Morris (2010a, p. 110)

1200

100

 

baghdad

Chandler, p. 472

1200

1000

 

baghdad

Modelski p.63

1250

100

 

baghdad

Chandler, p. 473

1300

40

 

baghdad

fletcher

1300

40

 

baghdad

Chandler, p. 474

1350

90

 

baghdad

Chandler (Jelairids) p. 475

1400

90

 

baghdad

fletcher

 

Last time, in 2013, we decided to keep morris in 800 and then use Modelski for 900, 100, 1100, and then move back to Morris for 1200.   (Modelski has two different estimate for 1000AD in the same book!)   If we use both sources, as you notice, the size jumps dramatically from 800 to 900 and shrinks a lot from 1100 to 1200.  Very awkward.  For this time, should we develop IROWS estimate for the years 900 after?   Perhaps, interpolating between 800 and 1200 of Morris?  What do you think? 

Below is Morris’s justification of his estimate on Baghdad: (Interestingly he does not pay attention to Modelski)

1200 CE: Baghdad, Cairo, Constantinople, 250,000 (Hourani 1991: 112;

Chandler 1987: 473; Bairoch 1988: 378; Haldon, pers. Comm., October

2005); 2.34 points. There is some disagreement over the populations of these

cities, but general consensus that all had populations between 200,000 and

300,000. Some estimates, however (particularly for Baghdad), go much

higher (see under 1000 CE below).

1000 CE: Cordoba, 200,000; 1.87 points. This is my own estimate. Several

estimates put Cordoba at 400,000-500,000 (e.g., Bairoch 1988: 118; De

Long and Shleifer 1993: 678; Chandler 1987: 467). Chandler also thinks that

Constantinople’s population was 300,000 and Baghdad’s 125,000. These

estimates, however, all seem very high. Haldon (pers. Comm., October 2005)

puts Constantinople at 150,000, and the settled area of Baghdad (550-860

ha; Hodges and Whitehouse 1983: 128) seems too small for a population

above 100,000. Cordoba covered roughly twice as large an area, and I

therefore suggest that its population peaked around 200,000 in the 11th

century.

900 CE: Cordoba, 175,000; 1.64 points. This is my own estimate. Chandler

(1987: 468) estimates Baghdad at 900,000, Constantinople at 300,000, and

Cordoba at 200,000. Several other scholars also put the population of

Baghdad quite high (e.g., Lapidus 2002: 56, at 300,000-500,000), though

nowhere near as high as Chandler. Lapidus’ estimate would require a

density of 350-900/ha, and Chandler’s 1,050-1,600. These seem

extraordinarily high; other large preindustrial cities rarely managed 200/ha (Fletcher 1995).

 

800 CE: Baghdad, 175,000; 1.64 points. Again this is my own estimate.

Baghdad clearly grew very quickly after its foundation in 762, and its

population may have peaked before the sieges of 812-813 and 865. Chandler

(1987: 468) estimates 700,000 for Baghdad, 250,000 for Constantinople, and

160,000 for Cordoba. Again, these numbers seem very high given the

physical size of the cities and the generally small populations in the Western

core at this point, after centuries of plagues. Haldon (pers. Comm., October

2005) sets the population of Constantinople in 750 CE at just 40,000-50,000.

 

 

 

Chandler pp 312-313 notes on Baghdad

 

Jacob Lassner, 1970 The Topography of Baghdad_ Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

So topography is a good way to estimate the population size of a city because it tells how big the whole built-up  area is and how that changes over time, and what parts of the city are residential vs other land uses.  Lassner’s book is mainly based on a translation of a description produced by Khatib al-Baghdadi in his Tarikh (history) of Bagdad, which was written in the 11th century. Khatib died in 1071 CE.

p.  122 in Lassner (1970)

The round city was completed in 766 CE.  Total are of the round city= 453 hectares (p. 169)

The total area of greater Baghdad was 7000 hectares (p. 158). Implies that this was in 890 CE, but in email he says it was 800. Lassner’ estimate of the peak population is 560k, but he says this may be low in email. Appendix B is on the development of suburbs.  Appendix G. list of caliphs from 750 Ce to 1048 CE.

 

Modelski notes on Baghdad p. 184

year

Fletcher

Lasser

Morris

Modelski

Chandler

irows

800

500

560

175

700

700

600

900

1500

900

900

1000

1000

500

1200

125

500

1100

1200

150

500

1150

100

100

1200

100

250

1000

100

250

1250

100

100

1300

40

40

40

1350

90

90

1400

90

90

90

 

 

Yin (ancient late Shang capital) v. 8-17-15

Names: Anyang (modern Chinese city near the site), Yinxu (waste or ruin of Yin), Xiaotun (Hsiao-tun) small village near the site.

On both sides of the Huan-ho river. Chi, Li (Li Ji 1977 Anyang. Seattle, University of Washington Press

Report of excavations from 1928-1937. Academica Sinica, topo map p. 62.

p. 133 king list  Wu Ting -1339-1281.  Ti I -1209-1175

Yinxu Xiaomintun Archaeological Team 2008 “The Shang Building Remains at Xiaomintun in Anyang City”  Chinese Archaeology. Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 8–15, (January)

Wiki says area size of site is 30 sq kilometers.

Chandler has no estimate for -1300.  His estimate for Anyang (note on p. 94) in -1200 is 30,000 (p. 460) based on the evidence that the army was 5,000 and he multiplies time 6.

year

Chandler

Modelski

Yoffee

Morris

Irows*

-1300

 

120

 

 

30

-1200

30

120

120

50

100

-1100

 

 

120

50

100

* Because Morris does not include the suburbs (see below) we may assume that his estimate is somewhat low for the greater urban area.  Yoffee’s high estimate is based on the total land area, but Morris is probably right that the settlements were spread out within much of this area.

 Modelski’ estimates for Yin are in a table on p. 35.  Notes for Yin are on p. 140.

Yoffee, Norman 2005 Myths of the Archaic State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

P. 43 Area and population size estimates of the earlier cities mentioned in the text

Anyang/Yinxu (1250-1046 BC) 19 km squared, 100,000 Liu pc; Yates 1997

Map p.71

Yates, R. 1997 “The city-state in ancient China PP. 71-90 in D. Nichols and T. Charlton (eds.) The Archaeology of City-States Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

 

Ian Morris, Social Development, p. 118

1200 BCE: Anyang, 50,000; 0.47 points

1100 BCE: Anyang, 50,000; 0.47 points

p. 126

1100 BCE: Anyang, 50,000 (my estimate); 0.47 points. Anyang, the final

Shang dynasty capital, has been extensively excavated since 1928, although the walled city at Huanbei was only located in 1997. Huanbei’s walls enclose 470 ha, and a population of 20,000-25,000 seems plausible, but other remains at Anyang sprawl across some 30 km2 (Thorp 2006: 125-71; Chang 1980; Liu and Chen 2010). As in the early 1st millennium BCE (see under 600 BCE), it becomes hard to define where the boundaries of a “city” are in such a dispersed settlement system. My suggestion of 50,000 is therefore somewhat arbitrary; defining the city very narrowly as just the walled area could cut this estimate by 50 percent, while defining it very loosely to include the suburbs could perhaps raise the total to 100,000 or more. Fifty thousand would make Anyang as large as Memphis in 1100 BCE; 100,000 would make it the biggest city in the world in the 13th through 11th centuries BCE. I offer the figure of 50,000 as a sensible middle ground between the very narrow and very loose definitions of the city.

Anyang was founded around 1300 BCE and by 1200 had clearly become a major settlement (however defined). Given the uncertainties of the estimate for 1100 BCE, there seems little point in compounding the

difficulties by offering a different estimate for 1200, so I simply propose

50,000 for both dates.

1200 BCE: Anyang, 50,000 (my estimate); 0.47 points. See under 1100 BCE. The walled settlement at Sanxingdui may cover as much as 350 ha (Thorp 2006: 64), and might have been a rival to Anyang for population, but it remains poorly known.

Nothing in Fletcher.

 

Settlement Size Sources Bibliography

Adams, Robert McCormick 1981 The Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central

            Floodplain of the Euphrates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

ARVE Population World Atlas http://arve.unil.ch/popmap

Bairoch, Paul 1988 Cities and economic development : from the dawn of history to the present Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Bairoch, Paul, Jean Batou and Pierre Chevre 1988 The Population of European Cities, 800 to 1850: Data Bank and Short Summary of Results. Geneva: Librairie Droz, 11 rue Massot

__________ 1988 [The population of European cities. Data bank and short summary of results: 800-1850] La population des villes europeennes. Banque de donnees et analyse sommaire des resultats: 800-1850. Geneva, Switzerland, Librairie Droz, http://www.popline.org/node/366534

Beaverstock, J.V., P.J. Taylor and R.G. Smith. 1999. “A roster of world cities.” Cities 16: 445-458.

Bosworth, Andrew 2000 "The evolution of the world city system, 3000 BCE to AD 2000"

Pp. 273-284 in Robert A. Denemark et al  eds. ) World System History.  London:

Routledge.

Braudel, Fernand 1972 The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II.  New York:

            Harper and Row, 2 vol.

Brown, Barton M. 1987 “Population estimation from floor area,” Behavior Science Research 21:1-49.

Chapman, Anne C. 1957 “Port of trade enclaves in Aztec and Maya civilizations” Pp. 114-153 in

            Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Arensberg and Harry W. Pearson, Trade and Markets in the Early

            Empires. Chicago: Henry Regnery.

Chandler, Tertius and Gerald Fox 1974 Three Thousand Years of Urban Growth. New York: Academic Press

Chandler, Tertius 1987 Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census.  Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin

            Mellon Press

Chase-Dunn, Christopher 1985 "The system of world cities: A.D. 800-1975." Pp. 269-292 in

Michael Timberlake (ed.) Urbanization in the World-Economy, New York:Academic

Press.

Chase-Dunn, C. and E. Susan Manning 2002 “City systems and world-systems: four

millennia of city growth an decline.” Cross-Cultural Research 36,4:379-398.

 Chase-Dunn, C. and Andrew K. Jorgenson 2003 “Regions and Interaction Networks:  an institutional

            materialist perspective,” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 44, 1:433-450.

Chase-Dunn C,  and Alice Willard 1994 "Cities in the Central Political-Military Network Since CE 1200"

            Comparative Civilizations Review, 30:104-32 (Spring).

Ciolek, Matthew n.d. OWTRAD: Old World Trade Routes Project. http://www.ciolek.com/owtrad.html

Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine 2008 The History of African Cities South of the Sahara. Princeton, NJ: Markus

            Wiener.

Davis, Kingsley 1969  World Urbanization 1950-1970, Volume 1. Institute of International Studies, University

            of California, Berkeley.

De Vries, Jan 1984 European Urbanization, 1500-1800 Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

 Fletcher, Roland 1995 The Limits of Settlement Growth. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.

______ n.d. City and Polity Data Files, Personal communication

Hardoy, Jorge and Maria Elena Langdon 1978  “Analisis estadistico preliminar de la Urbanizacion de

           America Latina entre 1850 y 1930,” Revista Paraguaya de Sociologia 42/43: 115-173 (May-

                December).

Hansen, M.H.  2000. "Introduction: The concepts of city-state and city-state culture," Pp. 11-34 in Mogens Herman Hansen (ed.), A comparative study of thirty city-state cultures. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish

            Academy of Sciences and Letters

Hassan, Fekri A. 1981 Demographic Archaeology. New York: Academic Press.

Inoue, Hiroko,  Alexis Álvarez, Eugene N. Anderson, Andrew Owen, Rebecca Álvarez, Kirk Lawrence and

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Modelski, George 2003 World Cities: –3000 to 2000. Washington, DC:  Faros 2000

Morse, Richard M. (ed.) with Michael Conniff and John Wibel 1971  The Urban Development of Latin America 1750-1920. Stanford  University: Center for Latin American Studies.

Morris, Ian 2013 The Measure of Civilization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Nichols, Deborah L and Thomas H. Charlton (eds.) 1997 The Archaeology of City-States. Washington,

            DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

OpenHistory http://openhistory.net/)

Pasciuti , Daniel 2002” A measurement error model for Estimating the Population Sizes of Preindustrial Citieshttp://irows.ucr.edu/research/citemp/estcit/modpop/modcitpop.htm

Pasciuti, Daniel and Christopher Chase-Dunn 2002 “Estimating the Population Sizes of

            Cities” http://irows.ucr.edu/research/citemp/estcit/estcit.htm

Petermann’s Geographische Mitteilungen 1865 ff. Gotha, 1857

Rozman, Gilbert 1973 Urban Networks in Ching China and Tokogawa Japan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University

            Press.

Russell, Josiah Cox 1972 Medieval Regions and their Cities. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

SESHAT:  The Global History Data Bank. The Evolution Institute http://evolution-institute.org/seshat

Smith, Charlotte Ann 2002 “Concordant change and core-periphery dynamics: a synthesis of highland

            Mesoamerican archaeological data” University of Georgia, PhD dissertation.

Smith, Michael E. 2005 “City size in late postclassic Mesoamerica” Journal of Urban History 31, 4: 403-434.

Smith, Michael E. Gary M. Feinman, Robert  D. Drennan, Timothy Earle and Ian Morris 2012

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Skinner, G. William (ed.) 1977. The City in Late Imperial China Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Turchin, Peter and Sergey Nefadov 2009 Secular Cycles Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

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http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/CD-ROM/Urban-Agglomerations.htm

United Nations 2011b World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision:

Methodology  http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/pdf/WUP2011_Methodology.pdf

Weber, Adna Ferrin 1963 [1899] The Growth of Cities in the Nineteenth Century: A Study in Statistics. Ithaca, NY:

            Cornell University Press.

White, D. R., Natasa Kejzar and Laurent Tambayong 2006 “Oscillatory dynamics of city-size distributions

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            Routledge.

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______________1991 "Core, peripheries and civilizations." Pp. 113-166 in Christopher

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Yoffee, Norman 2005 Myths of the Archaic State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 43 Area and population size estimates of the earlier cities mentioned in the text

 

Excel data files of largest city sizes:

irows.ucr.edu/cd/appendices/worregs/largestcitiesinworldregions.xlsx

 

Missing cases (redo the empires)

 
 

Count of largest city estimates across ten world regions (ignore empire count – see below)

 

Count of largest polity estimates across ten world regions

 

Largest polities since -1500, v. 10-24-15

Taagepera

-1500

 

0.65

West Asia/Africa

18th Dynasty

Thebes

Taagepera 1978 b, p182

dynasty name is changed from Taagepera

 

 

 

-1500

 

0.25

West Asia/Africa

Mitanni

 Washukanni

Taagepera, 1978 b, p191

 

 

 

 

 

-1500

 

0.15

West Asia/Africa

Hittites (Interpolated)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-1500

 

0.10

West Asia/Africa

Elam (Interpolated)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-1500

 

0.10

West Asia/Africa

Babylon (Interpolated)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-1500

 

0.03

West Asia/Africa

Assyria (Interpolated)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Re Babylon Wikipedia says:” Following the sack of Babylon by the Hittite Empire, an Indo-European speaking nation in Asia Minor, the Kassites, a people speaking a Language Isolate and hailing from the Zagros Mountains of north western Ancient Iran invaded and took over Babylon, ushering in a dynasty that was to last for 435 years until 1160 BC. The city was renamed Karanduniash during this period.”

And also “Hammurabi's empire quickly dissolved after his death, the Assyrians defeated and drove out the Babylonians and Amorites, the far south of Mesopotamia broke away, forming the Sealand Dynasty, and the Elamites appropriated territory in eastern Mesopotamia.”

For -1500 geacron has

And they have Shang as large as Egypt and Mycenaen

Mitanni

http://www.proel.org/img/alfabetos/hurrita1.gif

 

Google: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm

 

 

 

 

 

Conversion to square mega meters:

0.44473444 Sq.MM

 

 

 

 

File:Near East 1400 BCE.png

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shang, 1556 BC to 1046 BC; Capital= Ao

Geacron has it as large as eqypt (.65).

 

Mycenae

By 1200 BC, the power of Mycenae was declining; finally, during the 12th century BC, Mycenaean dominance collapsed entirely. (added city 30 k to city data set).

 

 

 

-1400

-1400

0.90

Africa

Central System

18th Dynasty

Thebes

Taagepera 1978 b, p182

 

dynasty name is changed from Taagepera

 

 

-1400

0.10

Southwest Asia

Central System

Babylon

Babylon

Taagepera, 1978, p186

 

 

 

 

-1400

0.10

Southwest Asia

Central System

Elam

Susa

Taagepera 1978 b, p186

 

 

 

 

-1400

.35

Southwest Asia

Central System

Mitanni

 Washukanni

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-CcRZ86vxg_g/T2Z5J8juHXI/AAAAAAAAAhs/8i2vKIWGVTA/s1600/Bronze+Age+Map+1400BC.png

wikipedia has this and says “Map of the Near East ca. 1400 BC showing the Kingdom of Mitanni at its greatest extent” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitanni

Liverani, Mario 2013 The Ancient Near East. New York: Routledge. Check .35 size estimate

 

-1300

-1300

1

1.00

 

Africa

Central System

18th Dynasty

 

Thebes

Taagepera 1978 b, p182; Turchin, Adams and Hall., Table 1

dynasty name is changed from Taagepera

-1300

 

 

 

Central Asia and Siberia

 

 

 

 

 

 

-1300

2

0.70

 

East Asia

East Asian System

Shang

 

Anyang

Taagepera 1978a p.116

-1300

4

0.15

 

Europe

Central System

Mycenaen

 

Mycenae

Geacron, Wikipedia

-1300

 

 

 

North and Central America

 

 

 

 

 

 

-1300

 

 

 

Oceania

 

 

 

 

 

 

-1300

 

 

 

South America and Caribbean

 

 

 

 

 

-1300

 

 

 

South Asia

Indonesian Sysem

Normadic Aryans

 

 

 

 

-1300

 

 

 

Southeast Asia

 

 

 

 

 

 

-1300

3

0.40

 

Southwest Asia

Central System

Hittites

 

Hattusa

Taagepera 1978 b, p188

-1300

5

0.14

 

Southwest Asia

Central System

Elam

interpolation

 

 

 

-1300

6

0.11

 

Southwest Asia

Central System

Assyria

interpolation

Assur

 

 

 

Hittites

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Map_Hittite_rule_en.svg/1890px-Map_Hittite_rule_en.svg.png

 

-1200

Israel

http://www.overlordsofchaos.com/assets/images/Ancient_Israel.jpg

-1100

Hittites disintegrated in -1180. Although the Hittite kingdom disappeared from Anatolia at this point, there emerged a number of so-called Neo-Hittite kingdoms in Anatolia and northern Syria. They were the successors of the Hittite Kingdom. The most notable Syrian Neo-Hittite kingdoms were those at Carchemish and Milid (near the later Melitene). Others were called Syro-Hittite kingdoms, and appeared to be a fusion of Indo-European Hittites and Semitic Arameans. All of these kingdoms gradually fell under the control of the Neo Assyrian Empire (911–608 BC), which went on to conquer much of the Middle East, Asia Minor, Arabia, the Caucasus, east Mediterranean and Northwest Africa. The last of them, Carchemish and Milid, were made vassals of Assyria under Shalmaneser III (858–823 BC), and fully incorporated into Assyria during the reign of Sargon II (722–705 BC).

The Carcamesh polity is on the Geacron map for -1000 but is too small to b in the top 6. Ditto -1100.

Egypt The Pharaohs of the 20th dynasty ruled for approximately 120 years: from ca 1187 to 1064 BC.

Phrygia  capital= Gordium

Phrygian power reached its peak in the late 8th century BC under another, historical king Midas, who dominated most of western and central Anatolia and rivaled Assyria and Urartu for power in eastern Anatolia. This later Midas was, however, also the last independent king of Phrygia before its capital Gordium was sacked by Cimmerians around 695 BC. Phrygia then became subject to Lydia, and then successively to Persia, Alexander and his Hellenistic successors

Elam? Elamite Empire.  Not on Geacron in -1100 but it should be getting smaller until  -770

Under the Shutrukids (c. 1210–1100), the Elamite empire reached the height of its power. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte and his three sons, Kutir-Nakhkhunte II, Shilhak-In-Shushinak, and Khutelutush-In-Shushinak were capable of frequent military campaigns into Kassite Babylonia (which was also being ravaged by the empire of Assyria during this period), and at the same time were exhibiting vigorous construction activity—building and restoring luxurious temples in Susa and across their Empire. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte raided Babylonia, carrying home to Susa trophies like the statues of Marduk and Manishtushu, the Manishtushu Obelisk, the Stele of Hammurabi and the stele of Naram-Sin. In 1158 BC, after much of Babylonia had been annexed by Ashur-Dan I of Assyria and Shutruk-Nakhkhunte, the Elamites defeated the Kassites permanently, killing the Kassite king of Babylon, Zababa-shuma-iddin, and replacing him with his eldest son, Kutir-Nakhkhunte, who held it no more than three years before being ejected by the native Akkadian speaking Babylonians. The Elamites then briefly came into conflict with Assyria, managing to take the Assyrian city of Arrapha before being ultimately defeated and having a treaty forced upon them by Ashur-Dan I.

Kutir-Nakhkhunte's son Khutelutush-In-Shushinak was probably of an incestuous relation of Kutir-Nakhkhunte's with his own daughter, Nakhkhunte-utu.[citation needed] He was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon, who sacked Susa and returned the statue of Marduk, but who was then himself defeated by the Assyrians. He fled to Anshan, but later returned to Susa, and his brother Shilhana-Hamru-Lagamar may have succeeded him as last king of the Shutrukid dynasty. Following Khutelutush-In-Shushinak, the power of the Elamite empire began to wane seriously, for with this ruler, Elam disappears into obscurity for more than three centuries.

Neo-Elamite Period Neo-Elamite I (c. 1100–770)

Very little is known of this period. Anshan was still at least partially Elamite. There appear to have been unsucessful alliances of Elamites, Babylonians and Chaldeans against the powerful Neo Assyrian Empire; the Babylonian king Mar-biti-apla-ushur (984–979) was of Elamite origin, and Elamites are recorded to have fought unsuccessfully with the Babylonian king Marduk-balassu-iqbi against the Assyrian forces under Shamshi-

-1000

Egypt  21st dynasty -1077—943, Tanis

Amenemope

Usermaetre-Setepenamun

1001 BC - 992 BC

Tanis

 

 geacron has Tanis as separate from Egypt in -1000 but it was not.

The kings at Tanis saw themselves as the legitimate successors on the throne of Upper and Lower Egypt. They used traditional titles and displayed their royalty in building work, although that was insignificant when compared to activity at the height of the New Kingdom.[1]

Tanis was founded in the late Twentieth Dynasty,[citation needed] and became the northern capital of Egypt during the following Twenty-first Dynasty. It was the home city of Smendes, founder of the 21st dynasty. During the Twenty-second Dynasty Tanis remained as Egypt's political capital (though there were sometimes rival dynasties located elsewhere in Upper Egypt).

 

Israel: Geacron has Israel pretty big in -1000, but this is too early.

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Kingdoms_of_Israel_and_Judah_map_830.svg/720px-Kingdoms_of_Israel_and_Judah_map_830.svg.png

http://www.worldreligions.psu.edu/images/artimages/maps/ancient%20israel.jpg 

 

http://www.overlordsofchaos.com/assets/images/Ancient_Israel.jpg

Kush 1070 BC–AD 350

With the disintegration of the New Kingdom around 1070 BC, Kush became an independent kingdom centered at Napata in modern central Sudan.[7]

 

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/14/Africa_in_400_BC.jpg/250px-Africa_in_400_BC.jpg

 

-900

Israel and Judah

The Kingdom of Israel emerged as an important local power by the 9th century BCE before falling to the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 722 BCE. Israel's southern neighbor, the Kingdom of Judah, emerged in the 8th century[1] and enjoyed a period of prosperity as a client-state of first Assyria and then Babylon before a revolt against the Neo-Babylonian Empire led to its destruction in 586 BCE.

Geacron has Israel pretty big in -1000

 

Phrygia

Phrygian power reached its peak in the late 8th century BC under another, historical king Midas, who dominated most of western and central Anatolia and rivaled Assyria and Urartu for power in eastern Anatolia. This later Midas was, however, also the last independent king of Phrygia before its capital Gordium was sacked by Cimmerians around 695 BC. Phrygia then became subject to Lydia, and then successively to Persia, Alexander and his Hellenistic successors,

 

 

-800

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Map_of_Assyria.png/1280px-Map_of_Assyria.png

Urartu

Got big as Assyria

23rd dynasty The Twenty-third Dynasty of ancient Egypt was a separate regime of Meshwesh Berber Libyan kings, who ruled ancient Egypt. This dynasty is often considered part of the Third Intermediate Period.

Shoshenq VI

Usermaatre-Meryamun

804 – 798 BC

 

Succeeded Pedubast I at Thebes and ruled Upper Egypt for 6 years.

There is much debate surrounding this dynasty, which may have been situated at Herakleopolis Magna, Hermopolis Magna, and Thebes but monuments from their reign show that they controlled Upper Egypt in parallel with the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt shortly before the death of Osorkon II.

-730 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Third_Intermediate_Period_map.svg/640px-Third_Intermediate_Period_map.svg.png

 

-700

Phrygia got bigger.

 

Egypt The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt.

Kush

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Kushite_empire_700bc.jpg

Kush in -700

Capital moved to Napata

780 BC

Urartu:

Tiglath Pileser III of Assyria  conquered Urartu in the first year of his reign (745 BC)

 

 

Rusa's son Argishti II (714 – 685 BC) restored Urartu's position against the Cimmerians, however it was no longer a threat to Assyria and peace was made with the new king of Assyria Sennacherib in 705 BC. This in turn helped Urartu enter a long period of development and prosperity, which continued through the reign of Argishti's son Rusa II (685–645 BC).

After Rusa II, however, the Urartu grew weaker under constant attacks from Cimmerian and Scythian invaders. As a result it became dependent on Assyria, as evidenced by Rusa II's son Sardur III (645–635 BC) referring to the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal as his "father." [28][29]

 

-600

Medes and Persians to capture Nineveh in 612 BCE, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 605 BC.

In 612 BC, the Median king Cyaxares the Great together with Nabopolassar of Babylon and the Scythians conquered Assyria after it had been badly weakened by civil war.

Medes

After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt, became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great

585 peak size.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Median_Empire.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Median-empire-600BCE.png

Egypt  655 emancipation from Assyria

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC

Jin Duke Ding of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋定公; traditional Chinese: 晉定公; pinyin: Jìn Dìng Gōng, died 475 BC) was from 511 to 475 BC the ruler of the state of Jin, Despite the civil war, Jin was still one of the most powerful states of China.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Chinese_plain_5c._BC-en.svg/568px-Chinese_plain_5c._BC-en.svg.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Griechischen_und_ph%C3%B6nizischen_Kolonien.jpg/1920px-Griechischen_und_ph%C3%B6nizischen_Kolonien.jpg

-500

Kush

Capital moved to Meroe

591 BC

 

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/64/Map_athenian_empire_431_BC-en.svg/993px-Map_athenian_empire_431_BC-en.svg.png

-400

Egypt 28th dynasty The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the Saite kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, and led a successful revolt against the Persians on the death of Darius II. No monuments of his reign have been found, and little is known of his reign.

Amyrtaeus

404 - 398 BC

 

Artaxerxes II continued to be recognized as king at Elephantine as late as 401 BC, but Aramaic papyri from the site refer to Regnal Year 5 of Amyrtaeus in September 400 BC. The Elephantine papyri also demonstrate that between 404 and 400 BC (or even 398) Upper Egypt remained under Persian control, while the forces of Amyrtaeus dominated the Delta.

Amyrtaeus was defeated in open battle by his successor, Nepherites I of Mendes, and executed at Memphis, an event which the Aramaic papyrus Brooklyn 13 implies occurred in October 399 BC.

Maghada According to tradition, the Shishunaga dynasty expanded the Magadha Empire in 413 BC, whose capital was Rajagriha, later Pataliputra, near the present day Patna in India. This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda dynasty. Shishunaga (also called King Sisunaka) was the founder of a dynasty of 10 kings, collectively called the Shishunaga dynasty. He expanded the Magadha empire (in 413 BC). This empire, with its original capital in Rajgriha, later shifted to Pataliputra (both currently in the Indian state of Bihar). The Shishunaga dynasty in its time was one of the largest empires of the Indian subcontinent.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/31/Magadha_Expansion_%286th-4th_centuries_BCE%29.png/800px-Magadha_Expansion_%286th-4th_centuries_BCE%29.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/40/MacedonEmpire.jpg/1920px-MacedonEmpire.jpg

-300 egypt http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/PtolemaicEmpire.png

Thrace

The Odrysian Kingdom (/ˈdrɪʒən/; Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν) was a state union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC. It consisted mainly of present-day Bulgaria, spreading to parts of Northern Dobruja, parts of Northern Greece and parts of modern-day European Turkey. King Seuthes III later moved the capital to Seuthopolis.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Tracian_state.png/640px-Tracian_state.png

Nanda (345–321 BCE)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/Nanda_Empire%2C_c.325_BCE.png/800px-Nanda_Empire%2C_c.325_BCE.png

 

Maurya  The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Maurya dynasty from 322 – 185 BCE

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Maurya_Dynasty_in_265_BCE.jpg

-200

Maurya

Devavarman

 

202 BC

195 BC

 

Parthia

The Parthian Empire (/ˈpɑrθiən/; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire /ˈ

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/Rome-Seleucia-Parthia_200bc.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9b/Carthaginianempire.PNG/1024px-Carthaginianempire.PNG

-100

Sunga The Shunga Empire is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India as well as parts of the northwest (now Pakistan) from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Maurya Empire. The capital of the Sungas was Pataliputra. Later kings such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Vidisha, modern Besnagar in Eastern Malwa.[22] The Sunga Empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers.

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Sunga-Border.jpg

Satavana

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/SatavahanaMap.jpg/800px-SatavahanaMap.jpg

Indo-greeks http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Indo-Greeks_100bc.jpg

1 CE

Xiongnu

Meroe

In 23 BC the Roman governor of Egypt, Publius Petronius, to end the Meroitic raids, invaded Nubia in response to a Nubian attack on southern Egypt, pillaging the north of the region and sacking Napata (22 BC) before returning home. In retaliation, the Nubians crossed the lower border of Egypt and looted many statues (among other things) from the Egyptian towns near the first cataract of the Nile at Aswan. Roman forces later reclaimed many of the statues intact, and others were returned following the peace treaty signed in 22 BCE between Rome and Meroe. One looted head though, from a statue of the emperor Augustus, was buried under the steps of a temple. It is now kept in the British Museum.[8]

The next recorded contact between Rome and Meroe was in the autumn of AD 61. The Emperor Nero sent a party of Praetorian soldiers under the command of a tribune and two centurions into this country, who reached the city of Meroe where they were given an escort, then proceeded up the White Nile until they encountered the swamps of the Sudd. This marked the limit of Roman penetration into Africa.[9]

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Asia_001ad.jpg/1920px-Asia_001ad.jpg

 

Parthia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a5/Map_of_the_Periplus_of_the_Erythraean_Sea.jpg/1920px-Map_of_the_Periplus_of_the_Erythraean_Sea.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Roman-Parthian_War_58-60.svg/1920px-Roman-Parthian_War_58-60.svg.png

100CE

Kushan an empire in South Asia originally formed in the early 1st century CE under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient Bactria around the Oxus River (Amu Darya), and later based near Kabul, Afghanistan.[ The Kushans spread from the Kabul River Valley to defeat other Central Asian tribes that had previously conquered parts of the northern central Iranian Plateau once ruled by the Parthians, and reached their peak under the Buddhist emperor Kanishka (127–151), whose realm stretched from Turfan in the Tarim Basin to Pataliputra on the Gangetic Plain."[3]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e5/Kushanmap.jpg/250px-Kushanmap.jpg

Xiongnu, geacron has big xiongnu, but they r wrong

As the eldest son of the preceding chanyu, Bi had a legitimate claim to the succession. In 48, two years after Huduershi's son Punu ascended the throne, eight Xiongnu tribes in Bi's powerbase in the south, with a military force totalling 40,000 to 50,000 men, acclaimed Bi as their own chanyu. Throughout the Eastern Han period, these two groups were called the southern Xiongnu and the northern Xiongnu, respectively.

Hard pressed by the northern Xiongnu and plagued by natural calamities, Bi brought the southern Xiongnu into tributary relations with Han China in 50. The tributary system was considerably tightened to keep the southern Xiongnu under Han supervision. The chanyu was ordered to establish his court in the Meiji district of Xihe commandery. The southern Xiongnu were resettled in eight frontier commanderies. At the same time, large numbers of Chinese were forced to migrate to these commanderies, where mixed settlements began to appear. The northern Xiongnu were dispersed by the Xianbei in 85 and again in 89 by the Chinese during the Battle of Ikh Bayan, in which the last Northern Chanyu was defeated and fled over to the north west with his subjects.

 Ban Chao was created the Marquess of Dingyuan (定遠侯, i.e., "the Marquess who stabilized faraway places") for his services to the Han Empire and returned to the capital Loyang at the age of 70 years old and died there in the year 102. Following his death, the power of the Xiongnu in the Western Regions increased again, and the emperors of subsequent dynasties were never again able to reach so far to the west.

 

200 ce

Xiongnu, funan

a foreigner named "Huntian" [pinyin: Hùntián] established the Kingdom of Funan around the 1st century CE in the Mekong Delta of southern Vietnam.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Asia_200ad.jpg

Sassanian empire

Aksum

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/Map_of_Aksum_and_South_Arabia_ca._230_AD.jpg

230 ad

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/SassanianEmpireHistoryofIran.png

300 ce

Kushan After the death of Vasudeva I in 225, the Kushan empire split into western and eastern halves. The Western Kushans (in Afghanistan) were soon subjugated by the Persian Sassanid Empire and lost Bactria and other territories. In 248 they were defeated again by the Persians, who deposed the Western dynasty and replaced them with Persian vassals known as the Kushanshas (or Indo-Sassanids).

The Eastern Kushan kingdom was based in the Punjab. Around 270 their territories on the Gangetic plain became independent under local dynasties such as the Yaudheyas. Then in the mid-4th century they were subjugated by the Gupta Empire under Samudragupta.

In 360 a Kushan vassal named Kidara overthrew the old Kushan dynasty and established the Kidarite Kingdom

Funan An Eastern Wu embassy was sent from China to Funan in 228.[36] A brief conflict is recorded to have happened in the 270s, when Funan and its neighbour, Linyi, joined forces to attack the area of Tongking (Vietnamese: Đông Kinh, "eastern capital"), located in what is now modern Northern Vietnam (which was a Chinese colony at the time).

Jin dynasty (265–420)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9e/Western_Jeun_Dynasty_280_CE.png/250px-Western_Jeun_Dynasty_280_CE.png

Vakataka 250-500The Vākāṭaka Empire (Marathi: वाकाटक) was a royal Indian dynasty that originated from the Deccan in the mid-third century CE. Their state is believed to have extended from the southern edges of Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra River in the south as well as from the Arabian Sea in the western to the edges of Chhattisgarh in the east. They were the most important successors of the Satavahanas in the Deccan and contemporaneous with the Guptas in northern India. Capital= Vatsagulma

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/East-Hem_300ad.jpg/1920px-East-Hem_300ad.jpg

400 ce

Eastern jin The remnants of the Jin court fled to the east and reestablished the government at Jiankang, near modern-day Nanjing, under a member of the royal family named the Prince of Langye. The prince was proclaimed the Emperor Yuan of the Eastern Jin dynasty (東晉, 317–420) when news of the fall of Chang'an in 316 reached the south.

Gupta 320-550

Sassanian the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 CE to 651 CE

 

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b8/Gupta_Empire_320_-_600_ad.PNG/250px-Gupta_Empire_320_-_600_ad.PNG

Aksum 100-940 Around 520, the King Kaleb sent an expedition to Yemen against the Jewish Himyarite King Dhu Nuwas, who was persecuting the Christian/Aksumite community in his kingdom. Dhu Nuwas was deposed and killed and Kaleb appointed a Christian Himyarite, Sumuafa Ashawa, as his viceroy. However, around 525 this viceroy was deposed by the Aksumite general Abreha with support of Ethiopians who had settled in Yemen, and withheld tribute to Kaleb. When Kaleb sent another expedition against Abreha this force defected, killing their commander, and joining Abreha. Another expedition sent against them was defeated, leaving Yemen under Abreha's rule, where he continued to promote the Christian faith until his death, not long after which Yemen was conquered by the Persians. According to Munro-Hay these wars may have been Aksum's swan-song as a great power, with an overall weakening of Aksumite authority and over-expenditure in money and manpower. According to Ethiopian traditions, Kaleb eventually abdicated and retired to a monastery. It is also possible that Ethiopia was affected by the Plague of Justinian around this time.[4]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a6/EzanaGreekTablet.jpg/250px-EzanaGreekTablet.jpg

http://bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.24wmf15/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png

The Ezana Stone records negus Ezana's conversion to Christianity and his subjugation of various neighboring peoples, including Meroë.

Aksum remained a strong, though weakened, empire and trading power until the rise of Islam in the 7th century.

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/LocationAksumiteEmpire.png/250px-LocationAksumiteEmpire.png

500 ad

Southern Qi 479-502

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Asia_500ad.jpg/1920px-Asia_500ad.jpg

Goguryeo or Koguryo  (37 BC – 668 AD)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/History_of_Korea-476.PNG/250px-History_of_Korea-476.PNG

476

600 ce

Sui dynasty (581–618 AD) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Cheui_Dynasty_581_CE.png

700 ce

Tibetan empire 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries A.D  618-841

 

A civil war that arose over Langdarma's successor led to the collapse of the Tibetan Empire. The period that followed, known traditionally as the Era of Fragmentation, was dominated by rebellions against the remnants of imperial Tibet and the rise of regional warlords.[52]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f0/Tibet_700ad.jpg/1920px-Tibet_700ad.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/18/Tibetan_empire_greatest_extent_780s-790s_CE.png/1280px-Tibetan_empire_greatest_extent_780s-790s_CE.png

Tang (618–907 AD)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Tang_Dynasty_circa_700_CE.png/250px-Tang_Dynasty_circa_700_CE.png 700

Khazars 618?–1048? For some three centuries (c. 650–965) the Khazars dominated the vast area extending from the Volga-Don steppes to the eastern Crimea and the northern Caucasus[13]

Khazaria long served as a buffer state between the Byzantine empire and both the nomads of the northern steppes and the Umayyad empire, after serving as Byzantium's proxy against the Sassanid Persian empire. The alliance was dropped around 900. Byzantium began to encourage the Alans to attack Khazaria and weaken its hold on Crimea and the Caucasus, while seeking to obtain an entente with the rising Rus' power to the north, which it aspired to convert to Christianity.[14] Between 965 and 969, the Kievan Rus ruler Sviatoslav I of Kiev conquered the capital Atil and destroyed the Khazar state.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Chasaren.jpg/1280px-Chasaren.jpg

800 ce

Avars Avar Khaganate was a nomadic confederacy that was established in the Carpathian Basin region in 567 by the Avars, and lasted until 804 The gradual decline of Avar power accelerated to a rapid fall within a decade. A series of Frankish campaigns in the 790s led by Charlemagne ended with the conquest of the Avar realm, taking most of Pannonia up to the Tisza River. Avar occupation was ended when a Slavic-Croatian force led by prince Vojnomir and supported by the Franks launched a counterattack in 791.[13][14] The offensive was successful and the Avars were driven out of Pannonian Croatia.[14] Charlemagne won another major victory against the Avars in 796.[15] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/04/Historical_map_of_the_Balkans_around_582-612_AD.jpg/800px-Historical_map_of_the_Balkans_around_582-612_AD.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/Europe_around_800.gif/1280px-Europe_around_800.gif

Around 800

 

900 ce

Khmer

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/09/Map-of-southeast-asia_900_CE.png/640px-Map-of-southeast-asia_900_CE.png

900 ce

 

 

Samanid dynasty (Persian: ÓÇãÇäیÇä‎, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanid Empire, or simply Samanids (819–999)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Samanid_dynasty_%28819%E2%80%93999%29.GIF

 

Sistan

Sistan became a province of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates. In the 860s, the Saffarid dynasty emerged in Sistan and proceeded to conquer most of the Islamic East, until it was checked by the Samanids in 900. After the Samanids took the province from the Saffarids, it briefly returned to Abbasid control, but in 917 the governor Abu Yazid Khalid made himself independent. He was followed by a series of emirs with brief reigns until 923, when Ahmad ibn Muhammad restored Saffarid rule in Sistan. After his death in 963, Sistan was ruled by his son Khalaf ibn Ahmad until 1002, when Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Sistan, ending the Saffarid dynasty.

1000 ce

Kara-khanid khanate a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids

The Khanate conquered Transoxania in Central Asia and ruled it between 999–1211.[5][6] Their arrival in Transoxania signaled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia,[7] but gradually the Kara-khanids became assimilated into the Perso-Arab Muslim culture of their realm.[8]

Their capitals included Kashgar, Balasagun, Uzgen and Samarkand

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/KaraKhanidAD1000.png

1000ce

Khitan Empire, Great Liao 907–1125 an empire in East Asia that ruled over Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern Korea, and northern China proper from 907 to 1125

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/KhitanAD1000.png

1000ce

1100 ce

Almoravid

a Berber dynasty of Morocco,[1][2] who formed an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Their capital was Marrakesh, a city they founded in 1062.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Empire_almoravide.PNG/800px-Empire_almoravide.PNG

1120 ce

1200 ce

Southern song

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/China_11b.jpg

Jin dynasty (1115–1234) also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan clan of the Jurchens, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing dynasty some 500 years later

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Sung_Dynasty_1141.png

1141 ce

1200 ce

Kara-Khitan or Qara-Khitai Khanate (Mongolian: Хар Хятан; Persian: خانات قراختایی‎), also known as Western Liao  1124-1218 capital= Balasagun

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/KaraKhitaiAD1200.png

Around 1200

Khwarezmid Empire

Main article: Khwarezmid Empire

http://bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.24wmf15/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png he dynasty ruled large parts of Greater Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs[8] and Kara-Khitan,[9] and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century

In the 12th century, the Khwarezmid Empire was founded and, in the early 13th century, ruled over all of Persia under the Shah ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muhammad II (1200–1220). In 1141, Yelü Dashi won the battle of Qatwan against a Seljuk army commanded by Sanjar, as a result, Khwarezm became a vassal of the Kara-Khitan Khanate.[24] Then from 1218 to 1220 Genghis Khan and his Mongols launched the invasion of Central Asia and destroyed the Kara-Khitan Khanate and the Khwarezmid Empire, including the splendid capital of the latter, Gurganj.

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Premongol.png

Political map of Asia, Europe and Africa around 1200 AD showing the Khwarezmid Empire in dark green

1300

Il-Khanate 1236-1335

The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (Persian: ایلخانان‎, Ilkhanan; Mongolian: Хүлэгийн улс, Hulagu-yn Ulus; Turkish:İlhanlı), was a Persianate breakaway Turco-Mongol khanate of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was established in the 13th century and was based primarily in Persia and neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. Capital = Tabriz

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/Ilkhanate_in_1256%E2%80%931353.PNG/250px-Ilkhanate_in_1256%E2%80%931353.PNG

Golden horde

1240s–1502

 

Capital: Sarai Batu

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/GoldenHorde1300.png

Holy roman empire (not really)

After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the German kingdom was divided between his son Conrad IV (died 1254) and the anti-king, William of Holland (died 1256). Conrad's death was followed by the Interregnum, during which no king could achieve universal recognition, allowing the princes to consolidate their holdings and become even more independent rulers. After 1257, the crown was contested between Richard of Cornwall, who was supported by the Guelph party, and Alfonso X of Castile, who was recognized by the Hohenstaufen party but never set foot on German soil. After Richard's death in 1273, the Interregnum ended with the unanimous election of Rudolf I of Germany, a minor pro-Staufen count.

1400

Northern Yuan 1368-1691

Northern Yuan Dynasty[2] (official name:Khalkha Mongolian

: Mongol Uls, State of Mongolia; Khalkha Mongolian: ᠬᠦᠮᠠᠷᠳᠦ ᠥᠨ ᠥᠯᠥᠰ, Umard Yuan, Chinese: 北元; pinyin: Beǐ Yuán, Northern Yuan) was the successor state of the Yuan Dynasty that had retreated north to Mongolia after the expulsion from China in 1368

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Mongolia_15.png

Mali empire1230 to c. 1600. Musa III

In the early 15th century, Mali was still powerful enough to conquer and settle new areas. One of these was Dioma, an area south of Niani populated by Fula Wassoulounké.[16] Two noble brothers from Niani, of unknown lineage, went to Dioma with an army and drove out the Fula Wassoulounké. The oldest brother, Sérébandjougou, was crowned Mansa Foamed or Mansa Musa III. His reign saw the first in a string of many great losses to Mali. In 1430, the Tuareg seized Timbuktu.[50] Three years later, Oualata also fell into their hands.[27]

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/MALI_empire_map.PNG

Ottoman empire capital=

 

Söğüt

1500

Northern YuanRestoration (1479–1600)

Second reunion

Manduul's (Manduulun) young khatun Mandukhai proclaimed a boy named Batumongke. The new khan, as a descendant of Genghis Khan, took the title Dayan meaning the "Great", with reference to the Yuan Dynasty.[22] Mandukhai and Dayan Khan overthrew Oirat supremacy. At first the new rulers operated with the taishi system. The taishis mostly ruled the Yellow River Mongols. However, one of them killed Dayan Khan's son and revolted when Dayan Khan appointed his son, jinong Ulusbold, over them. Dayan Khan finally defeated the southwestern Mongols in 1510 with the assistance of his allies, Unebolad wang and the Four Oirats.[23] Making his another son jinong, he abolished old-Yuan court titles of taishi, chingsang, pingchan and chiyuan.

The Ming Dynasty closed border-trade and killed his envoys. Dayan invaded China and subjugated the Three Guards, tributaries of the Ming. The Oirats assisted his campaign in China. The Tümed Mongols ruled in the Ordos region and they gradually extended their domain into northeastern Qinghai.[24]

Administrative divisions

Timurid dynasty 1370–1507

Capital= Samarkand

By 1500, the divided and wartorn Timurid Empire had lost control of most of its territory and within the following years were effectively pushed back on all fronts. Persia fell quickly to the Shiite Safavid dynasty, secured by Shah Ismail I in the following decade. Much of the Central Asian lands was overrun by the Uzbeks of Muhammad Shaybani who conquered the key cities of Samarkand and Herat in 1505 and 1507, and founded the Khanate of Bukhara. From Kabul, the Mughal Empire was established by Babur, a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother, in 1526. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal dynasty though it was directly inherited from the Timurids.

Golden horde

Fall (1480–1502) The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (which possessed much of the Ukraine at the time) were attacked in 1487–1491 by the remnant of the Golden Horde. They reached as far as Lublin in eastern Poland before being decisively beaten at Zaslavl.[75]

The Crimean Khanate became a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in 1475 and subjugated what remained of the Great Horde, sacking Sarai in 1502. After seeking refuge in Lithuania, Sheikh Ahmed, last Khan of the Horde, died in prison in Kaunas some time after 1504.

 

Southeast Asian Polities

v. 11-3-15

Polygon making: To calculate the area (sq megameters) of a polity or other entity find a map that shows the entity And put it in a window beside the map from daft logic.

http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm

open window of map. Within daftlogic zoom to same area.  Put in polygon markers

to convert square kilometers to square megameters multiply times .000001

a square megameter is 1000 by 1000 kilometers.

 

http://sydney.edu.au/angkor/

http://sydney.edu.au/arts/timemap/images/content/timemap/examples/2003_03_khmer_animation.swf

Chandler, David 1996 A History of Cambodia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Coe, Michael D. 2003 Angkor and the Khmer Civilization. New York: Thames and Hudson.
Lieberman, Victor. 2003. Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800-1830. Vol. 1: Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

100CE  Funan

Funan” 100CE 0.0183411821 SQ. Mega Meters

 

 


 

200CE

 

 

 

 

Funan” 200CE 0.076914566114 sq. Mega Meters

Funan polity

300 CE

 

 

Funan” in 300 CE  0.11034180736  Square Mega Meters

 

 

 


 

 

 

The term Champa refers to a collection of independent Cham<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chams> polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam> from approximately the 7th century through 1832, before being conquered and annexed by Vietnam

Champa reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries. Thereafter, it began a gradual decline under pressure from Đại Việt<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%90%E1%BA%A1i_Vi%E1%BB%87t>, the Vietnamese polity centred in the region of modern Hanoi<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanoi>. In 1832, the Vietnamese emperor Minh Mạng<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minh_M%E1%BA%A1ng> annexed the remaining Cham territories.

Modern scholarship has been guided by two competing theories in the historiography of Champa. Scholars agree that historically Champa was divided into several regions or principalities spread out from south to north along the coast of modern Vietnam and united by a common language, culture, and heritage. It is acknowledged that the historical record is not equally rich for each of the regions in every historical period. For example, in the 10th century, the record is richest for Indrapura; in the 12th century, it is richest for Vijaya<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vijaya_%28Champa%29>; following the 15th century, it is richest for Panduranga. Some scholars have taken these shifts in the historical record to reflect the movement of the Cham capital from one location to another. According to such scholars, if the 10th-century record is richest for Indrapura, it is so because at that time Indrapura was the capital of Champa. Other scholars have disputed this contention, holding that Champa was never a united country, and arguing that the presence of a particularly rich historical record for a given region in a given period is no basis for claiming that the region functioned as the capital of a united Champa during that period.[5]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Champa#cite_note-5

 

Funan in 400 CE

Same as in 300

Chenla 600

 

.0928 sq km chenla 600

Chenla 700

.5806 sq megameters in 700

Champa kingdom  [192-1700](Vietnam)

Champa was formed in AD 192, during the breakup of the Han dynasty of China, when the Han official in charge of the region established his own kingdom around the area of the present city of Hue. Although the territory was at first inhabited mainly by wild tribes involved in incessant struggles with the Chinese colonies in Tonkin, it gradually came under Indian cultural influence, evolving into a decentralized country composed of four small states, named after regions of India, Amaravati (Quang Nam), Vijaya (Binh Dinh), Kauthara (Nha Trang), and Panduranga (Phan Rang). The four states had a powerful fleet that was used for commerce and for piracy. The Cham people, of Malayo-Polynesian stock and Indianized culture, were finally united under the rule of King Bhadravarman around 400AD.

In retaliation for Cham raids on their coast, the Chinese invaded Champa in 446, bringing the region under their suzerainty once again. Finally, under a new dynasty in the 6th century, Champa threw off its allegiance to China and entered into an era of great independent prosperity and artistic achievements. In the late 8th century the Chams were distracted by attacks from Java, but in the 9th century they renewed their pressure on the Chinese provinces to the north and the growing Khmer Empire to the west. Under Indravarman II, who established the Indrapura dynasty in 875, the capital of the country was moved to the northern province of Amaravati (Quang Nam), near present Hue, and elaborate palaces and temples were constructed.

In the 10th century the Vietnamese kingdom of Dai Viet, based in Hanoi, began to exert pressure on Champa, forcing it to relinquish Amaravati in 1000 and Vijaya in 1069. Harivarman IV, who founded the ninth Cham dynasty in 1074, was able to stave off further Vietnamese and Cambodian attacks, but in 1145 the Khmers, under the aggressive leadership of Suryavarman II, invaded and conquered Champa. Two years later a new Cham king, Jaya Harivarman I, arose and threw off Khmer rule, and his successor sacked the Cambodian capital at Angkor in 1177. Between 1190 and 1220 the Chams again came under Cambodian suzerainty, and later in the 13th century they were attacked by the Tran kings of Vietnam, as well as by the Mongols in 1284. By the late 15th century, incessant wars of aggression and defense had for all practical purposes wiped out the Champa kingdom; one by one their provinces were annexed until Champa was entirely absorbed in the 17th century.

 

 

Champa

200 ce

Whole of Champa in 200 CE0.022350406 square mega meters

Champa 300 ce

 

 

Whole of champa in 300 ce is 0.040998113193 square mega meters

400 CE Champa

 

Funan is bigger


 

500

Funan is bigger

 


 

600

 

 

Champa in 600 ce 0.054250616156 sq. mega meters

Same with 700

Chenla is larger

 

 

 

 

 


 

700

 

 

Champa in 700 ce 0.054250616156 sq. mega meters

 

 

Same with 600 c


 

800

 

 

 

 

0.071742981455 sq. mega meters

 

 


 

900

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khmer is bigger

 

 

 


 

1000

 

 

 


 

1100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

1200

 

 

 

 

 

http://sydney.edu.au/angkor/

http://berclo.net/page00/00en-sea-history.html

Khmer kingdom  [802-1432](Cambodia)

Khmer civilization developed over several distinct periods. The first was marked by the small, somewhat decentralized Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms of Funan and Chenla, beginning in the 1st century AD and extending into the 8th century.

In the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Jayavarman II founded the dynasty that became established at Angkor by the early 10th century. This era has been called the classical period of Khmer civilization (802-1432). Jayavarman's successors constructed great architectural monuments at Angkor. The power of the Khmer empire peaked in the 12th century under Suryavarman II, who built the temple complex of Angkor Wat. His armies ranged as far west as northern Thailand and as far east as northern Vietnam. The Khmer empire's strength was based on a well-developed system of irrigated rice cultivation and on an elaborate bureaucracy that exerted control over Khmer manpower. In the early 13th century, Jayavarman VII extended the empire farther than had any of his predecessors.

The Empire crumbled later in the 13th and 14th centuries when domestic instability caused by the accession of weak rulers left the Khmer exposed to the attacks of their neighbours. Their difficulties were compounded when Buddhism began to undermine the hierarchy of the state, which was based on Hinduism. By the 15th century the Khmer could no longer defend their capital at Angkor. The next 400 years were a period of political and social decline in which Khmer rulers were often involved in wars with Vietnam and Siam. Many times the Khmer rulers became vassals of one or the other.

 

 

Khmer Empire 802 CE

 

 

 

 Khmer Empire 802 CE  .638759  sq megameters

 

Khmer Empire 900 CE

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khmer_Empire#/media/File:Map-of-southeast-asia_900_CE.png

khmer empire 900CE= .910376 sq megameters

Khmer empire1000 CE

Khmer empire 1000 CE  =.462598 sq megameters    1000 CE  Srivajaya  larger at    .6807 

 

1100 CE khmer empire

1100 khmer outside

Outside area= .473903 sq megameters

Rebellious area inside= .139846 sq megameters

So 1100 CE khmer  outside (.473903) minus rebellious area inside (.139846)= .334057 sq megameters

 

Khmer 1200 CE

 

.949531 sq megameters for 1200 Ce

 

1300 CE

So .542168  sq megameters in 1300 CE

Khmer  .286617 sq megameters in 1400 CE.  1432 sacked by Ahutya

Same in 1500 CE Cambodia

Same in 1600 CE (Geacron) Cambodia

Srivajaya

800 CE

Geacron 800

Srivajaya malay part


Srivajay 800 sumatra part

Srivajay 800 west java part

Malay part = .201902

Sumatra= = .44611

West java=  .03273  total = .680742  sq megameters in 800 CE for Srivajaya

Bigger than khmer: Khmer Empire 802 CE  .638759  sq megameters

 

Srivajaya 1100

Malay part 132584.59 km²

Sumatra part 328772.24 km²

Banka-belatung island  12498.63 km²

473854 sq kms = .473854

 

Laos (Lan Xang) 1400

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Map-of-southeast-asia_1400_CE.png

Wikipedia Lan Xang in green.  1400 CE

Sydney

 

Lan xang 1400 ce 392755.52 km²= .3928  sq megameters

Vietnam 1500 CE

246194.44 km²= .2462  sq megameters for Vietnam in 1500




 

Ayutthaya 1600 ce

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Map-of-southeast-asia_1400_CE.png

311011.49 km²= .3110  sq megameters

Ayutthaya 1700


Ayutthaya 1700 ce 431775.26 km²    .431775 sq megameters

 

 

Siam 1800

 

Siam 1800  785268.19 km²   .785268 sq megameters


 

Siam 1900

Siam 1900  .607098 sq megameters

Indonesia 2000 ce 1,904,569 km2   1.9045 sq megameters

 

 

 SE Asia from 100 CE to 1700 CE Largest Polity

Year                   Polity                        size in sq megameters    2nd largest polity

100 CE     Funan                 .0183

200 Ce     Funan                  .0769

300 ce       Funan                 .1103

400 CE     Funan                 .1103

500 CE              Funan                     .1103

600 CE     Chenla                    .0928

700 CE     Chenla                    .5806

800 CE    Srivajaya                   .6807                                      Khmer = .6387

900 CE    Khmer                     .9104

1000 CE  Srivajaya                   .6807                                      Khmer= .4626

1100 CE  Srivjaya                   .4738                           Khmer   .3341

1200 CE  Khmer                     .9495

1300 CE  Khmer                     .5422

1400 CE  Lan Xang (Laos)      .3928                          Khmer=  .2866 

1500 CE   Lan Xang                .3928                                        Vietnam  .2462

1600 CE  Lan Xang (Laos)      .3928                          Ayutthaya .3110                     

1700 CE  Ayutthaya                .4318                           Lan Xang (Laos) .3928                                   

1800 CE   Siam                        .7853

1900 CE   Siam                       .6071

2000 CE  Indonesia               1.9045

 

 

 

Figure showing the logged values to the sum of the largest cities and polities

 

 

                       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 10: Logged sum of the populations of the world’s 6 largest cities and 6 largest polities, 1500 BCE to 2010 CE

Figure 10 shows the logged sums of the populations of the world six largest cities and of the world six largest polities from 1500 BCE to 2010 CE.  The long-term upward trends for both are clear, but there are interesting temporary declines in both. And the final twists are different. Polity sizes decline because of decolonization, while city sizes show a rapid increase, even when they are converted to log scores. 

 

Redo this using the world sum of largest cities and polities in 10 world regions

 



[1] The boundary between Southeast Asia and South Asia is the Burma-India/Bangladesh border.